Acoplamiento y optomecánica de condensados de polaritones excitónicos fuera de equilibrio / Coupling and optomechanics of non-equilibrium polariton-exciton condensates

Carraro Haddad, Ignacio (2022) Acoplamiento y optomecánica de condensados de polaritones excitónicos fuera de equilibrio / Coupling and optomechanics of non-equilibrium polariton-exciton condensates. Master in Physical Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

En esta tesis desarrollamos las bases teóricas y experimentales del problema de dos condensados de polaritones excitónicos acoplados, los cuales se ven sometidos a efectos optomecánicos que alteran fuertemente su dinámica. Si bien el acoplamiento de dos estados cuánticos macroscópicos se ha explorado en otras plataforma, como es el caso de las junturas Josephson superconductoras y los pares de condensados de Bose- Einstein de átomos fríos, los condensados de polaritones excitónicos representan, a diferencia de los dos últimos sistemas, un ejemplo de un sistema forzado-disipativo (driven-dissipative), lo cual abre todo un espectro de problemas no-Hermıticos con características cualitativamente diferentes. Además, estos sistemas de polaritones acoplados han evidenciado fenómenos de auto-oscilación mecánica lo cual genera un puente con la optomecánica en cavidades. Aprovechando este fenómeno, desarrollamos cómo el acoplamiento optomecánico provee una manera novedosa de modular de manera armónica y auto-consistente la energía de acoplamiento, J(t), entre dos condensados de polaritones. Estudiamos este problema en dos contextos diferentes, el primero se trata de la interacción entre las dos proyecciones de pseudoespın de un condensado. Observamos experimentalmente un desdoblamiento del estado fundamental de una trampa aislada en dos líneas de emisión con polarizaciones diferentes, cuya separación es igual a la energía del fanón fundamental de la cavidad (ν_0 ∼ 20 GHz). Proponemos así un mecanismo de acoplamiento optomec´anico entre ambas proyecciones de pseudoespın que resulta en una energía de acoplamiento efectiva J(t) ∝ cos (2πν_0t), la cual puede dar una explicación plausible a por qué se fija la energía relativa entre ambos estados a la energía del fanón. Además, mediante mediciones de interferometría resuelta espectralmente, observamos una dinámica temporal oscilatoria entre las ocupaciones de cada estado de pseudoespin inducido por la onda mecánica. De esta manera, la observación del desoblamiento en pseudoespın a 20 GHz es una manifestación de que el sistema de polaritones evoluciona forzando una auto-oscilación mecánica coherente. El segundo caso de estudio es el de un par de trampas que se acoplan vía tuneleo de partículas entre ellas. Realizamos dos experimentos diferentes, en el primero estudiamos dos trampas de 2 μm de lado separadas 2 μm, para el cual estimamos que la frecuencia de tuneleo es bastante menor a la frecuencia de los fonones (J ≪ hν_0). Observamos que los modos fundamentales de ambas trampas, bajos ciertas condiciones, entran en un estado de locking optomec´anico donde se fija su energía relativa a la energía de la modulación inducida por el acoplamiento optomec´anico en J(t). Entendemos a este proceso como uno de segundo orden de fonones, donde los polaritones transicionan de una trampa a la otra emitiendo un fanón fundamental y otro del segundo armónico. También demostramos que la energía de locking se renormaliza al aumentar la potencia de excitación en el sistema. En el segundo experimento, estudiamos dos trampas de 4 μm de lado separadas 1 μm, para el cual estimamos que la frecuencia de tuneleo directo entre trampas es del orden de la frecuencia de los fonones (J ∼ hν_0). Vemos que cuando la energía entre los estados fundamentales de ambas trampas se aproxima a la energía del fanón de cavidad, hay un crecimiento drástico en la corriente de polaritones desde la trampa de mayor energía a la de menor energía, como sucede en las resonancias de Shapiro cuando se irradian junturas Josephson con radiofrecuencias. Además de esto, también observamos locking optomec´anico pero a través de un proceso de primer orden de fonones en vez de segundo, debido al mayor solapamiento entre los estados de trampa respecto al experimento anterior.

Abstract in English

In this thesis we develop the theoretical and experimental bases of the problem of two coupled excitonic polariton condensates, which are subjected to optomechanical effects that strongly alter their dynamics. Although the coupling of two macroscopic quantum states has been explored on other platforms, such as superconducting Josephson junctions and Bose Einstein condensate pairs of cold atoms, polariton condensates, unlike the last two systems, represent an example of a driven-dissipative system, which opens up a whole spectrum of non-Hermitian problems with qualitatively different characteristics. In addition, these coupled polariton systems have evidenced phenomena of mechanical self-oscillation which generates a bridge with optomechanics in cavities. Taking advantage of this phenomenon, we develop how optomechanical coupling provides a novel way to harmonically and self-consistently modulate the coupling energy, J(t), between two polariton condensates. We study this problem in two different contexts, the first one deals with the interaction between the two pseudospin projections of a condensate. We experimentally observed a splitting of the ground state of a single trap into two emission lines with different polarizations, whose separation is equal to the energy of the ground state cavity phonon (ν_0 ∼ 20 GHz). We thus propose an optomechanical coupling mechanism between both pseudospin projections that results in an effective coupling energy J(t) ∝ cos (2πν_0t), which can give a plausible explanation for why the relative energy between both pseudospin states sets to the phonon energy. In addition, by means of spectrally resolved interferometry measurements, we observed an oscillatory temporal dynamics between the occupations of each pseudospin state induced by the mechanical wave. Thus, the observation of pseudospin unfolding at 20 GHz is a manifestation that the polariton system evolves forcing a coherent mechanical self-oscillation. The second case study is that of a pair of traps that are coupled via particle tunneling between them. We perform two different experiments, in the first we estimate that the tunneling energy is much lower than the phonon energy. We observe that the ground states of both traps, under certain conditions, enter an optomechanical locked state where their relative energy equals the energy of the modulation induced by the optomechanical coupling to J(t). We understand this as a second-order phonon process, where the polaritons transition from one trap to the other, emitting one ground state phonon and one phonon from the second harmonic. We also show that the locked energy is renormalized by increasing the excitation power. In the second experiment, we estimate that the direct tunneling energy between traps is of the same order of magnitude as the phonon energy. We see that when the energy between the ground states of both traps approaches the energy of the cavity phonon, there is a drastic growth in the current of polaritons from the higher energy trap to the lower energy one, as happens in the Shapiro resonances when Josephson junctions are irradiated by radio frequencies. In addition to this, we also observe optomechanical locking but through a first-order phonon process instead of a second-order one, due to the greater overlap between the trapped states compared to the previous experiment.

Item Type:Thesis (Master in Physical Sciences)
Keywords:Polaritons; Polaritones; Synchronization; Sincronización; Josephson junctions; Uniones de Josephson; [Shapiro resonance; Resonancia de Shapiro]
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Subjects:Physics > Optoelectrónica
Physics > Optomecánica en resonadores semiconductores
Divisions:Gcia. de área de Investigación y aplicaciones no nucleares > Gcia. de Física > Materia condensada > Laboratorio de fotónica y optoelectrónica
ID Code:1160
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:24 Jul 2023 12:43
Last Modified:24 Jul 2023 12:43

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