Influencia de la estructura de contactos en las transacciones económicas / Impact of contact network structure on economic exchanges

Cuevas, Santiago (2022) Influencia de la estructura de contactos en las transacciones económicas / Impact of contact network structure on economic exchanges. Master in Physical Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

Se estudió un modelo de intercambio de riqueza entre agentes económicos conocido como Yard-Sale. Con el objetivo de probar un enfoque de interacciones más realista se consideró a los agentes como los nodos de diferentes redes complejas y se restringieron los intercambios a los nodos conectados por esta estructura. En un nivel de descripción macroscópico se evaluaron indicadores económicos típicos, como el coeficiente de Gini y la liquidez, y se compararon los obtenidos con el modelo Yard-Sale en el esquema de campo medio, donde no hay restricciones para la interacción entre agentes. Se encontraron algunas similitudes, tales como las curvas de distribución de la riqueza, que reflejan el comportamiento de la clase media y baja en las economías reales. Entre las principales diferencias, se observó la pérdida de ergodicidad al medir la desigualdad final de los sistemas, incluso al realizar repeticiones con idénticas condiciones iniciales. Además se obtuvo un rango diferente de valores de desigualdad, más cercano a los valores de países reales. Otro nivel de descripción permitió estudiar la influencia de las características individuales de los agentes en el éxito económico logrado. Se demostró que las cantidades microscópicas relacionadas con el flujo de riqueza dependen exclusivamente del modelo de intercambio, y se encontró una dependencia de la riqueza final de los agentes con el número de contactos que poseen. Además, la inclusión de las redes generó una dependencia del éxito económico individual con la riqueza inicial con la que contaba cada agente, a diferencia de lo obtenido en el esquema de campo medio. Se propuso un nuevo nivel de descripción del problema, con el que se estudió en detalle el subgrupo de agentes que no quedaba en bancarrota, introduciendo un nuevo indicador de desigualdad. Se encontró un proceso de percolación asociado a la subred que estos agentes conformaban. Finalmente, se implementó y distribuyó una librería open source de fácil acceso y uso, que permite reproducir todos los resultados obtenidos en este trabajo y realizar pruebas similares sobre otros modelos de intercambio en redes complejas arbitrarias.

Abstract in English

The well-known model of wealth exchange between economic agents Yard-Sale was studied, representing the agents with nodes of complex networks. Exchanges were restricted to nodes connected by this structure, aiming at a more realistic interaction approach and studying the influence of the number of connections on the economic success of agents. Systems defined with these models were evolved and typical economic indicators such as the Gini coefficient and liquidity were used to compare the characteristics with the Yard-Sale model in the mean field scheme, where there are no restrictions between which agents can to interact. Similarities were found, such as wealth distribution curves, which reflect the behavior of the middle and lower classes in real economies. As one of the differences, a loss of ergodicity was observed when measuring the final inequality of the systems, even when performing repetitions with identical initial conditions. Also a different range of inequality values, closer to the values of real countries, was obtained. The influence of the individual characteristics of the agents on economic success was studied. It was shown that the microscopic quantities related to movement of wealth among the agents depended exclusively on the exchange model. Previous results related to that behaibour were found. Likewise, it was shown that there is a dependence on the final wealth obtained with the contact number of the agents. In addition, the presence of networks gave importance to the initial wealth that each agent had, which does not happen in the mean field scheme. The subgroup of agents that did not go bankrupt was studied in detail, introducing a new indicator of inequality. Additionally, a percolation process, associated with the subgraph formed by these agents, was discovered. Finally, an easy to access and use open source library was implemented and distributed. It allows reproducing all the results obtained in this work and perform out similar tests on other exchange models in arbitrary graphs.

Item Type:Thesis (Master in Physical Sciences)
Keywords:[Econophysics; Econofísica; Wealth distributions; Distribuciones de riquezas; Kinetic wealth exchange model; Modelo de agentes económicos; Dynamical processes on complex networks; Dinámica en redes complejas]
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Subjects:Physics > Econofísica
Divisions:Gcia. de área de Investigación y aplicaciones no nucleares > Gcia. de Física > Sistemas complejos y altas energías > Física estadística interdisciplinaria
ID Code:1175
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:07 Aug 2023 11:25
Last Modified:07 Aug 2023 11:25

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