Diseño y fabricación de una ortesis programable para desviaciones laterales de la rodilla pediátrica / Design and manufacturing of a programmable orthosis for pediatric lateral deviations knee

Mocciaro, Bruno (2023) Diseño y fabricación de una ortesis programable para desviaciones laterales de la rodilla pediátrica / Design and manufacturing of a programmable orthosis for pediatric lateral deviations knee. Integration Project in Mechanical Engineering, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

Se diseñó y fabricó una ortesis programable para corregir desviaciones laterales de la rodilla, mediante la aplicación de cargas cíclicas especificadas por el personal de salud para cada paciente. Dicha carga es un momento sobre la articulación que contrarresta la desviación. Tanto el período, como los valores de carga máxima y mínima y las fracciones de tiempo que es aplicada cada una pueden programarse según se requiera. Se identificaron los requerimientos del dispositivo, entre ellos características ergonómicas, de funcionamiento, de seguridad y de facilidad de uso. En base a ello, se separó el diseño en tres sistemas: el actuador, el sistema electrónico y de control y el sistema de fijación. Se optó por la utilización de materiales con memoria de forma (MMF) como actuadores. Para el sistema electrónico y de control se implementó un control mediante sensado de temperatura, correlacionando esta variable con la carga aplicada a partir de una caracterización termomecánica del comportamiento del dispositivo. Se utilizó un controlador PI. Se realizó la electrónica de acondicionamiento necesaria para su correcto funcionamiento. Para la modificación de parámetros se programó una interfaz gráfica. Para el sistema de fijación, aparte de los requerimientos de comodidad y ergonomía, se tuvo en cuenta que debe vincular el actuador y el sistema electrónico y de control. Se caracterizó mecánicamente el actuador, verificando que es posible aplicar una carga variable entre 1,1 Nm y 1,5 Nm, en un rango de desviaciones de hasta 11º, cumpliendo el objetivo de diseño inicial.

Abstract in English

A programmable orthosis aimed to correct lateral deviations of the knee was designed and manufactured. It was required to be capable of applying cyclic loads that oscillate between values determined by healthcare professionals according to the patient’s needs. Generated loads are characterized as moments applied to the joint in order to compensate the deviation. The period, maximum and minimum load values, and the fractions of time during which each load is applied are programmable. The device requirements, including ergonomic features, functionality, safety, and ease of use, were identified. Based on this, the design was divided into three systems: the actuator, the electronic and control system, and the fixation system. First, the actuator was selected based on the specified requirements. The implementation of shape memory alloys (SMA) as actuators was chosen. The electronic and control system implemented temperature sensing control using a PI controller. The necessary conditioning electronics were developed for proper operation. A graphical user interface was programmed for parameter modification. For the fixation system, in addition to comfort and ergonomics, the integration of the actuator and the electronic and control system was considered. A mechanical characterization of the device was performed, and this allowed to verify that the applied load varies between 1.1 Nm and 1.5 Nm for an application angle of 11º, meeting the initial requirements.

Item Type:Thesis (Integration Project in Mechanical Engineering)
Keywords:Pediatrics; Pediatría; Design; Diseño; [Knee; Rodilla; Orthosis; Ortesis]
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Subjects:Mechanical engineering > Diseño mecánico
Medicine
Divisions:Investigación y aplicaciones no nucleares > Física > Física de metales
ID Code:1211
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:22 Aug 2023 14:09
Last Modified:22 Aug 2023 14:09

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