Desarrollo de resonadores superconductores basados en aluminio granular / Development of superconducting resonators based on granular aluminium

Potos, Erick A. (2024) Desarrollo de resonadores superconductores basados en aluminio granular / Development of superconducting resonators based on granular aluminium. Master in Physical Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

En este trabajo, desarrollamos avances hacia la implementacin de resonadores microondas basados en materiales superconductores con alta inductancia cintica. Estos resonadores se caracterizan por su alto factor de calidad y por su gran sensibilidad para la deteccin de fotones. En su versin ms ventajosa como Detectores de Inductancia Cintica de Microondas (MKIDs), estos dispositivos se acoplan capacitivamente a una nica lnea de transmisin para permitir la lectura multiplexada de un arreglo de pxeles. Entre los materiales con alta inductancia cintica de fabricacin ms accesible y comportamiento ms reproducible est el aluminio granular (AlGr), el cual consiste de nano granos de aluminio embebidos en una matriz aislante de oxido de aluminio. Como se discute en la primera parte de esta tesis, de la fenomenologa de la superconductividad del AlGr, se desprenden dos propiedades significativas relacionadas con su nano estructura: por un lado, el incremento de la temperatura crtica superconductora con la resistencia superficial, lo que conlleva a la formacin de un domo superconductor en el diagrama de fase Tc vs RS. Por otro lado, una alta inductancia cintica, tpica de superconductores desordenados, que comparamos con valores tpicos de otros materiales superconductores para comprender su ventaja en el desarrollo de MKIDs. En esta tesis fabricamos tres generaciones de films de AlGr, en las cuales optimizamos los parmetros de crecimiento durante el proceso de pulverizacin catdica (sputtering) de aluminio en una atmsfera controlada de oxigeno. Obtuvimos films de AlGr con distintas concentraciones de oxgeno ajustando la presin de oxgeno relativa en el proceso de crecimiento. Caracterizamos estos films en trminos de su morfologa utilizando diferentes tcnicas (AFM, SEM, TEM) y en trminos de sus propiedades elctricas realizando mediciones de resistencia a dos terminales a temperatura ambiente en una estacin de prueba. Utilizando procesos de microestructuracin aditiva y sustractiva sobre los films de la tercera generacin de AlGr, y luego de una optimizacin de los parmetros de litografa ptica y ataque qumico, obtuvimos como resultado films con un diseo de barra Hall del orden de los cientos de micrones. Estos films fueron enfriados en un criostato de dilucin hasta temperaturas aproximadas de 10 mK para evaluar su temperatura crtica de transicin al estado superconductor. Los resultados indican un incremento de la temperatura crtica con la concentracin de oxgeno en los films hasta un 3% y luego una disminucin para concentraciones mayores. Adems, presentamos avances en el desarrollo de resonadores de alta inductancia cintica utilizando AlGr. Trabajamos en la optimizacin de los parmetros de microestructuraci n de los resonadores y en la calibracin de un setup de medicin RF para su caracterizacin en el rgimen criognico. Para ello, utilizamos un prototipo de resonadores diseado a partir de nitruro de niobio titanio (NbTiN), disponible en el grupo de investigacin, el cual nos permiti obtener mediciones de las frecuencias de resonancia y su comportamiento ante cambios de temperatura y potencia en el setup de medicin.

Abstract in English

In this work, we developed advancements towards the implementation of microwave resonators based on superconducting materials with high kinetic inductance. These resonators are characterized by their high quality factor and high sensitivity for photon detection. In their most advantageous version as Microwave Kinetic Inductance Detectors (MKIDs), these devices are capacitively coupled to a single transmission line to allow multiplexed readout of a pixel array. Among the materials with high kinetic inductance of more affordable fabrication and more reproducible behavior is granular aluminum (AlGr), which consists of aluminum nano grains embedded in an aluminum oxide insulating matrix. As discussed in the first part of this thesis, from the phenomenology of the superconductivity of AlGr, two significant properties related to its nanostructure emerge: on the one hand, the increase of the superconducting critical temperature with the surface resistance, leading to the formation of a superconducting dome in the Tc vs RS phase diagram. On the other hand, a high kinetic inductance, typical of disordered superconductors, which we compare with typical values of other superconducting materials to understand their advantage in the development of MKIDs. In this thesis we fabricated three generations of AlGr films, in which we optimized the growth parameters during the aluminum sputtering process in a controlled oxygen atmosphere. We obtained AlGr films with different oxygen concentrations by adjusting the relative oxygen pressure in the growth process. We characterized these films in terms of their morphology using different techniques (AFM, SEM, TEM) and in terms of their electrical properties by performing two-terminal resistance measurements at room temperature in a test station. Using additive and subtractive microstructuring processes on third generation AlGr films, and after optimization of the optical lithography and chemical etching parameters, we obtained films with a Hall bar design in the order of hundreds of microns. These films were cooled in a dilution cryostat to temperatures of approximately 10 mK to evaluate their critical transition temperature to the superconducting state. The results indicate an increase of the critical temperature with oxygen concentration in the films up to 3% and then a decrease for higher concentrations. Additionally, we present advancements in the development of high kinetic inducix tance resonators using AlGr. We worked on optimizing the microstructuring parameters of the resonators and calibrating an RF measurement setup for their characterization in the cryogenic regime. To achieve this, we utilized a prototype of resonators designed from niobium titanium nitride (NbTiN), available in the research group, which allowed us to obtain measurements of the resonance frequencies and their behavior under temperature and power variations in the measurement setup.

Item Type:Thesis (Master in Physical Sciences)
Keywords:[Granular aluminium; Aluminio granular; Kinetic inductance; Inductancia cintica; Superconducting dome; Domo superconductor; Microwave resonators; Resonadores microondas; Disordered superconductors; Superconductores desordenados]
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Subjects:Physics
Divisions:Gcia. de rea de Investigacin y aplicaciones no nucleares > Instituto de Nanociencia y Nanotecnologa (INN) > Dispositivos y Sensores
ID Code:1235
Deposited By:Marisa G. Velazco Aldao
Deposited On:17 Apr 2024 15:28
Last Modified:22 Apr 2024 06:24

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