Dinámica de movimiento animal y dispersión de semillas: modelos teóricos y experimentos. / Dynamics of animal movement and seed dispersal: models and experiments.

Kazimierski, Laila D. (2019) Dinámica de movimiento animal y dispersión de semillas: modelos teóricos y experimentos. / Dynamics of animal movement and seed dispersal: models and experiments. PhD in Physics, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

Esta tesis se enmarca en el análisis de las propiedades colectivas emergentes en sistemas complejos. Dentro de este marco general, focalizamos nuestro trabajo en el estudio de sistemas formados por unidades dinámicas en un contexto interdisciplinario con la Biología. En particular, inspirados en el movimiento que realiza un animal forrajero en un sustrato del cual se alimenta, trabajamos en la caracterización de sistemas ecológicos que involucran el desplazamiento animal en un hábitat heterogéneo en situaciones en que las poblaciones y el hábitat se acoplan y configuran mutuamente. Por un lado, desarrollamos modelos teóricos de movimiento con foco en los comportamientos que surgen de decisiones y estrategias individuales. En particular, desarrollamos un modelo basado en el movimiento que realiza un caminante con memoria en un sustrato del cual obtiene su alimento. Encontramos que las caminatas resultantes se distinguen de caminatas aleatorias en la medida que el caminante use eficientemente esta memoria. Ademas, desarrollamos un modelo basado en estrategias de uso del recurso: la cantidad de alimento que ingiere en los sitios que visita define su estrategia y determina el tipo de caminata resultante. Por otro lado, desarrollamos un modelo teórico de movimiento con foco en el proceso de dispersión de semillas mediado por animales. Para modelar la dinámica de las semillas utilizamos un sistema de ecuaciones diferenciales acopladas con retardo. Usamos diferentes métodos para aproximar la solución, mediante los cuales propusimos que la vegetación avanza como un frente de onda y logramos caracterizar como depende la velocidad de ese avance con el retardo entre la ingesta de semillas por animales y su deposición en un nuevo sitio. Desarrollamos, ademas, un modelo simulado que valida este comportamiento en 1D y lo extiende a 2D. Por ultimo, en esta tesis trabajamos en el desarrollo de un sistema de monitoreo de movimiento animal usando técnicas de radiotelemetría. El objetivo fue diseñar, desarrollar, caracterizar y utilizar este sistema para rastrear los movimientos de la especie animal que inspiro nuestro trabajo: el marsupial monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides). Esta etapa experimental se realizo de manera interdisciplinaria en un grupo formado por biólogos, físicos e ingenieros en electrónica.

Abstract in English

This thesis is part of the analysis of collective properties emerging in complex systems. Within this general framework, we focus our work on the study of systems formed by dynamic units in an interdisciplinary context with Biology. In particular, in the characterization of ecological systems that involve animal movement in a heterogeneous habitat in situations in which populations and the habitat are coupled and configured mutually, inspired by the movement that makes a forage animal on a substrate from which it feeds. Firstly, we develop theoretical models of movement with focus on the behaviors that emerge from individual decisions and strategies. In particular, we developed a model based on the movement made by a walker with memory in a substrate from which they obtain their food. We nd that the resulting walks are distinguished from random walks as long as the walker uses that memory eciently. We also developed a model based on resource use strategies: the amount of food the animal eats at the sites it visits denes its strategy and determines the type of the resulting walk. Secondly, we developed a theoretical model of movement with focus on the seed dispersal process mediated by animals. To model the dynamics of the seeds we write a system of differential equations coupled with delay. We used different methods to approximate the solution, through which we proposed that the vegetation advances as a wave front and we managed to characterize how the velocity of that advance depends on the delay between the ingestion of seeds by animals and their deposition in a new site. We also developed a simulated model that validates this behavior in 1D and extends it to 2D. Finally, we worked on the development of an animal movement monitoring system using radiotelemetry techniques. The objective was to design, develop, characterize and use this system to track the movements of the animal that inspired our work: the marsupial monito del monte (Dromiciops gliroides). This experimental stage was carried out in an interdisciplinary way in a group formed by biologists, physicists and electrical engineers.

Item Type:Thesis (PhD in Physics)
Keywords:Scattering; Dispersión; Models (Biological); Modelos(Biológicos) [Animal movement; Movimiento animal; Seed dispersal; Dispersión de semilla; Experiments; Experimentos]
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Subjects:Physics > Sistemas complejos
Divisions:Gcia. de área de Investigación y aplicaciones no nucleares > Gcia. de Física > Sistemas complejos y altas energías > Física estadística interdisciplinaria
ID Code:847
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:01 Mar 2021 09:08
Last Modified:01 Mar 2021 09:08

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