Dinámica de procesos de evacuación peatonal en poblaciones mixtas con imitación de actitudes cooperativas / Dynamics of pedestrian evacuation processes in mixed populations with imitation of cooperative behaviours

Zablotsky, Amir N. (2022) Dinámica de procesos de evacuación peatonal en poblaciones mixtas con imitación de actitudes cooperativas / Dynamics of pedestrian evacuation processes in mixed populations with imitation of cooperative behaviours. Master in Physical Sciences, Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

En este trabajo se analiza la dinámica de evacuación de poblaciones heterogéneas con comportamientos mixtos, que pueden ser cooperativos o egoístas, mediante simulaciones numéricas utilizando una variante original del Modelo de Fuerza Social. Los peatones cooperativos pueden representar agentes de seguridad, o bien individuos entrenados acerca de cómo actuar para reducir el riesgo ante una potencial estampida peatonal. Se considera una dinámica de imitación en la que los peatones egoístas pueden imitar a los cooperativos si se encuentran lo suficientemente cerca de uno de ellos. Nos enfocamos en los efectos de la dinámica de imitación sobre la duración de las evacuaciones y la seguridad de las mismas, para distintas proporciones de mezcla, geometrías de la habitación y parámetros que caracterizan la cooperatividad de un individuo. Los resultados principales muestran que, agregando una cierta cantidad de peatones cooperativos a un sistema puro de egoístas, es posible reducir el tiempo de evacuación y también la densidad peatonal. En particular, vimos que para obtener esta mejora al evacuar un pasillo, se requiere una cantidad de peatones agregados mucho menor que en una habitación cuadrada. También estudiamos evacuaciones mixtas sin la dinámica de imitación, y obtuvimos resultados que contrastan con los anteriores, y contrastan asimismo con los resultados obtenidos en trabajos con otros modelos sin imitación. El trabajo incluye también un estudio complementario de propiedades generales de procesos de evacuación en poblaciones homogéneas. Se analiza la dependencia del conocido efecto Faster-is-Slower con distintos parámetros de cooperatividad y con la geometría del recinto. Por ´ultimo se estudiaron procesos análogos de evacuación de medios granulares heterogéneos en silos. Se estudió el flujo y el tiempo de vaciado del silo en función de las proporciones de mezclas con partículas de menor rozamiento que cumplen roles análogos a los peatones cooperativos en el sistema peatonal. Las principales diferencias con los procesos de evacuación peatonal son la ausencia de autopropulsión (o fuerza del deseo de los peatones) por parte de los granos, que de alguna manera es reemplazada por la gravedad, y la ausencia de imitación. Nuestras conclusiones generales señalan la relevancia de educar a las personas acerca de como actuar ante una posible estampida peatonal, y la importancia de que se generen protocolos para reducir los riesgos y la probabilidad de futuras tragedias.

Abstract in English

This thesis analyzes the evacuation dynamics of populations with mixed behaviors, which can be either cooperative or selfish, by means of numerical simulations using an original variation of the Social Force Model. The cooperative pedestrians can represent either safety agents or individuals trained on how to act to reduce the risk of a potential pedestrian stampede. We consider an imitation dynamic in which selfish pedestrians can imitate cooperative pedestrians if they are close enough to one of them. We focus on the effects of imitation dynamics on evacuation duration and evacuation safety for different mixing ratios, room geometries, and parameters characterizing an individual’s cooperativeness. The main results show that, by adding a certain amount of cooperative pedestrians to a pure selfish system, it is possible to reduce the evacuation time and also the pedestrian density. In particular, we saw that in order to obtain this improvement when evacuating a corridor, a much smaller number of added pedestrians is required than in a square room. We also studied mixed evacuations without imitation dynamics, and obtained results that contrast with the previous ones, as well as with the results obtained in works with different models without imitation. The work also includes a complementary study of general properties of evacuation processes in homogeneous populations. The dependence of the well-known Fasteris-Slower effect on different cooperativity parameters and on the room’s geometry is analyzed. Finally, analogous evacuation processes of heterogeneous granular media in silos were studied. The flow and silo emptying time were studied as a function of the mixture proportions with lower friction particles that play analogous roles to cooperative pedestrians in the pedestrian system. The main differences with pedestrian evacuation processes are the absence of self-propulsion (or the pedestrians’ desire force) by the grains, which is somehow replaced by gravity, and the absence of imitation. Our overall conclusions point to the relevance of educating people about how to act in the event of a possible pedestrian stampede, and the importance of creating protocols to reduce risks and the probability of future tragedies.

Item Type:Thesis (Master in Physical Sciences)
Keywords:Simulation; Simulación; Evacuation; Evacuación; [Pedestrians; Peatones; Cooperativity; Cooperatividad; Imitation; Imitación]
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Subjects:Physics > Física interdisciplinaria
Ingeniería en telecomunicaciones > Física computacional
Divisions:Gcia. de área de Investigación y aplicaciones no nucleares > Gcia. de Física > Sistemas complejos y altas energías > Física estadística interdisciplinaria
ID Code:1155
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:25 Jul 2023 12:42
Last Modified:25 Jul 2023 12:42

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