Utilización de tecnologías de irradiación limpias para remediación ambiental: revisión bibliográfica y principales hallazgos / Irradiation technologies for environmental remediation: bibliographic review and main findings

Atencio, Soraya (2022) Utilización de tecnologías de irradiación limpias para remediación ambiental: revisión bibliográfica y principales hallazgos / Irradiation technologies for environmental remediation: bibliographic review and main findings. Final Work (CEATEN), Universidad Nacional de Cuyo, Instituto Balseiro.

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Abstract in Spanish

En el presente trabajo se realizó una revisión bibliográfica sobre las diferentes industrias que apostaron por las tecnologías de irradiación como tratamiento de efluentes y en base a ello se realizó una propuesta de una planta que sería posible implementar dentro del territorio argentino aprovechando los recursos y capacidades disponibles. Se estudiaron las aplicaciones tanto en efluentes líquidos, lodos y gaseosos; en industrias comerciales y de servicios. Existen registros de que países como Alemania, China, India, Rusia y Polonia utilizan esta tecnología desde los años 70. Se observó también que las empresas que optan por este tipo de tecnología, las usan en complemento con otras tradicionales para mejorar la eficiencia del proceso. Basándose en las experiencias previas de otras empresas y en las necesidades de la Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo, considerando la tecnología y recursos disponibles en el país se propuso la instalación de una planta de irradiación de lodos provenientes de las plantas de tratamiento de efluentes municipales. La planta de irradiación sería de CLASE I, diseñada en el país, y utilizaría fuentes de cobalto-60 reutilizadas de otras empresas para aprovechar la actividad remanente de las fuentes que han cumplido su primer ciclo de vida. Las fuentes que permiten reciclar el cobralto-60 han sido diseñadas, construidas y ensayadas por Dioxitek y aprobadas por la ARN, y se caracterizan por tener un menor costo que las fuentes fabricadas con cobalto fresco. Al finalizar la irradiación de los lodos se adicionaría una solución de nitrato de amonio al 60%, proveniente de la planta de producción de dióxido de uranio de la planta de Córdoba de Dioxitek. Este producto final de lodo irradiado más nitrato de amonio, por su alto contenido de materia orgánica y nitrógeno, resulta ideal para ser utilizado como fertilizante. El Ministerio de Ambiente y Desarrollo Sustentable del país aprobó la “Norma técnica para el manejo sustentable de barros y biosólidos generados en plantas depuradoras de efluentes líquidos cloacales y mixtos cloacales-industriales” que establece los criterios para el manejo, tratamiento, utilización, disposición o eliminación de los barros o biosólidos resultantes de las diferentes operaciones unitarias que realicen plantas depuradoras de efluentes líquidos cloacales y mixtos, para asegurar una gestión sustentable de los mismos. En esta norma se clasifican a los lodos irradiados como “Biosólidos de clase A” y establece formas de uso de los mismos, entre ellas, se permite la elaboración de abonos que es el objetivo final del trabajo. Las grandes ventajas de este proyecto incluyen: la generación de un subproducto aprovechable a partir de efluentes municipales, el aprovechamiento de un producto secundario de la planta de Dioxitek (Córdoba), y finalmente, la contribución directa e indirecta con al menos 10 de los 17 los Objetivos de Desarrollo Sostenible.

Abstract in English

In this work, a bibliographic review was carried out on the different industries that have opted for irradiation technologies as effluent treatment and, based on this, a proposal was made for a plant that could be implemented in Argentina, taking advantage of the available resources and capacities. Applications were studied in liquid, sludge and gaseous effluents; in commercial and service industries. There are records that countries such as Germany, China, India, Russia and Poland have been using this technology since the 1970s. It was also observed that the companies that opt for this type of technology use it in addition to other traditional technologies to improve process efficiency. Based on the previous experiences of other companies and the needs of the Matanza Riachuelo Basin, considering the technology and resources available in the country, the installation of a plant for irradiation of sludge from municipal effluent treatment plants was proposed. The irradiation plant would be a CLASS I plant, designed in the country, and would use cobalt-60 sources reused from other companies to take advantage of the remaining activity of the sources that have completed their first life cycle. The sources that allow the recycling of cobalt-60 have been designed, built and tested by Dioxitek and approved by the ARN, and are characterized by having a lower cost than sources manufactured with fresh cobalt. At the end of sludge irradiation, a 60% ammonium nitrate solution from the uranium dioxide production plant at Dioxitek's Córdoba plant would be added. This final product of irradiated sludge plus ammonium nitrate, due to its high organic matter and nitrogen content, is ideal for use as a fertilizer. The Ministry of the Environment and Sustainable Development approved the "Technical standard for the sustainable management of sludge and biosolids generated in sewage and mixed sewage-industrial liquid effluent treatment plants", which establishes the criteria for the management, treatment, use, disposal or elimination of the sludge or biosolids resulting from the different unitary operations carried out by sewage and mixed liquid effluent treatment plants, to ensure their sustainable management. This standard classifies the irradiated sludge as "Class A Biosolids" and establishes ways of using it, including the production of fertilizers, which is the final objective of this work. The main advantages of this project include: the generation of a usable by-product from municipal effluents, the use of a by-product from the Dioxitek plant (Córdoba), and finally, the direct and indirect contribution to at least 10 of the 17 Sustainable Development Goals.

Item Type:Thesis (Final Work (CEATEN))
Keywords:Environment; Medio ambiente; Nuclear energy; Energía nuclear; [Cuenca Matanza Riachuelo]
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Subjects:Environmental science
ID Code:1174
Deposited By:Tamara Cárcamo
Deposited On:09 Aug 2023 11:58
Last Modified:09 Aug 2023 11:58

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